This Manual seeks to provide a practical guide to the relevant human rights standards for anyone involved in examining how well a criminal trial or a justice system meets international standards of fairness. It is intended for the use of trial observers and others assessing the fairness of an individual case, as well as for anyone seeking to evaluate the extent to which a country’s criminal justice system guarantees respect for international standards of fair trial. It may also serve as a guide for law makers, judges, prosecutors and defence lawyers or as a training tool.
The purpose of this guide is to raise the legal awareness of activists from the community of people living with HIV who provide paralegal assistance to people affected by the criminalisation of HIV. This guide is also recommended for use by activists from key populations – people who use drugs, sex workers, and representatives of the LGBT community. This manual reflects the experience of the HIV-positive community members, as well as their partners and associates from across Eastern Europe and Central Asia (EECA), in providing direct assistance to HIV-positive people affected by discriminatory HIV-specific laws and the decriminalisation of HIV.